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How To Spell Words Spelling Rules Basic English Grammar Ielts Exams Preparation

How To Spell Words Spelling Rules Basic English Grammar Ielts Exams Preparation

Final consonant

1- If the word to which the suffix ful is added ends in ll, the second l is dropped.
We drop one L if it comes as suffix as

  • will + ful = wilful
  • skill + ful = skilful

2- We drop e where words end with silent e,this case is with vowel.

  • live + ing = living — move + ed = moved
  • home + ing = homing — drive + er = driver

The e remains before a suffix beginning with a consonant,

  • hope + ful = hopeful
  • engage + ment = engagement

Note the exceptions:-

  • due + ly = duly
  • nine + th = ninth
  • true + ly = truly
  • whole + ly = wholly
  • argue + ment = argument
  • awe + ful = awful

3- Words ending in ie change the ie to y when ing is added.

  • tie, tying,
  • lie, lying
  • die, dying
  • Final y

4-When y follows a consonant changes to i before a suffix except ing.

  • carry + ed = carried
  • beauty + ful = beautiful
  • happy + ly = happily
  • marry + age = marriage

But:

  • marry + ing = marrying-
  • carry + ing = carrying

But y following a vowel does not change.

  • play + er = player
  • pray + ed = prayed

Notice a few exceptions:-

  • say + ed = said
  • pay + ed = paid
  • day + ly = daily
  • gay + ly = gaily
  • lay + ed = laid

ie or ei

5- Words of two or three syllables ending in single vowel + single consonant double the final consonant if the last syllable is stressed.

  • suffer + ing = suffering
  • benefit + ed = benefited

The consonant is not doubled if the last syllable is not stressed.

  • handicap + ed = handicapped
  • worship + ed = worshipped

These words are exceptions: worship, kidnap, handicap.

  • kidnap + er = kidnapper
  • begin + ing = beginning
  • occur + ed = occurred
  • permit + ed = permitted
  • control + er = controller
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6- One-syllable words ending in single vowel + single consonant double the consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel.

  • run + ing = running
  • sad + est = saddest
  • beg + ed = begged
  • rob + er = robber

but:

  • fear + ing = fearing (two vowels)
  • wish + ed = wished (two consonants)

7- In British English the consonant l is doubled, even if the stress does not fall on the last syllabi

  • distil + er = distiller
  • travel + er = traveler
  • quarrel + ed = quarreled
  • signal + ing = signalling

Note the exception:-

  • parallel + ed = paralleled

8- When ie or ei is pronounced like ee in ‘jeep’, i comes before e except after c.

  • grieve — deceit,
  • yield — conceive
  • believe — receive
  • relieve — receipt
  • achieve — deceive
  • field — conceit

Some exceptions :

  • Weird — surfeit — plabeian
  • Seize — protein — counterfeit

9- Notice the special case of words ending in ce and ge which keep the e when adding able and ous.

  • peace + able = peaceable
  • courage + ous = courageous
  • notice + able = noticeable
  • change + able = changeable

In such words the c and g are pronounced soft before e. Sometimes the e is retained to avoid confusion with a similar word.

  • swinge + ing = swingeing (avoids confusion with swinging)
  • singe + ing = singeing (avoids confusion with singing)

10-Words ending in ee do not drop an e before a suffix.

  • agree + ment = agreement
  • see + ing = seeing

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